Epistemology Study: The Role of Christian Teachers Regarding Students Freedom in Learning
Kajian Epistemologi: Peran Guru Kristen terhadap Kebebasan Belajar Siswa
Keywords:Christian Education, pragmatism, progressive education, teacher's role, freedom learning
School epistemological belief is essential as it directly influences the goal and center of education. Following this logic, Christian education ideally aims to guide students to the knowledge of God as Christian epistemology believes that God is the source of knowledge. However, in teaching and learning practices, Christian teachers may be unaware of the world’s modern philosophy and thus unconsciously adopt the practices from the modern educational approach. As a result, the goal of Christian education can be shifted from God-centered to student-centered learning within progressive educational practice. Misleading knowledge and truth may bring schools away from the responsibility to fulfill God’s will in education. Thus, it is necessary for Christian teachers to guide students throughout the learning process to see God as the source of knowledge. This paper aims to critically discuss the Christian teachers’ role as a guide regarding students’ freedom in learning. To this end, this study employs a literature review method. The study concludes that Christian teachers can exercise the God-given authority to guide students in using their intellectual and free-will to serve God and others.
Anthony, Michael. Introducing Christian Education: Foundations for The Twenty-First Century. Baker Academic, 2001.
Bavinck, Herman. Reformed Dogmatics. Edited by John Bolt. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011.
Berkhof, Louis. Teologi Sistematika: Doktrin Manusia. Surabaya: Momentum, 2006.
Biesta, Gert, and Nicholas Burbules. Pragmatism and Educational Research. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013.
Brummelen, Haro Van. Batu Loncatan Kurikulum: Berdasarkan Alkitab (2nd Ed.). Jakarta: Universitas Pelita Harapan, 2008.
———. Walking with God in the Classroom. Walking with God in the Classroom. Jakarta: Universitas Pelita Harapan, 2009.
Garte, Rebecca. “American Progressive Education and the Schooling of Poor Children: A Brief History of a Philosophy in Practice.” International Journal of Progressive Education 13, no. 2 (2017): 7–17.
Gilbert, Marvin. “Integrative Critical Analysis.” In Missiological Research: Interdiisciplinary Foundations, Methods, and Integration, edited by Marvin Gilbert, Alan R. Johnson, and Paul W. Lewis, 1st ed., 47–52. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Publishing, 2018.
Graham, Donovan L. Teaching Redemptively: Bringing Grace and Truth into Your Classroom. Colorado Springs: Purposeful Design Publications, 2009.
Habermas, Ronald T. Introduction to Christian Education and Formation: A Lifelong Plan for Christ-Centered Restoration. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2008.
HAO, Jian-Jun. “A Study of the Impact of Pragmatism on American Education.” DEStech Transactions on Social Science, Education and Human Science, no. icesd (2017): 346–49. https://doi.org/10.12783/dtssehs/icesd2017/11565.
Jeynes, William. The Wiley Handbook of Christianity and Education. Hoboken: Wiley, 2018.
Knight, George R. Filsafat & Pendidikan (4th Ed.). Jakarta: Universitas Pelita Harapan, 2009.
Mustapa, Hasan, Riska Maelani, and Iman Saefullah. “Indonesian Human Progressivism?: Human Resources Quantity in Educational Philosophy Perspective.” Jurnal Pendidikan Universitas Garut 13, no. 01 (December) (2019).
Norris, Norman D. The Promise and Failure of Progressive Education. Lanham: Scarecrow Press/Rowman & Littlefield Pub, 2004.
Opoku, John Kwaku, Peter Addai-mensah, and Eric Manu. “Realization of the Nature and Role of Christian Education in Modern Pedagogy.” British Journal of Education 2, no. 5 (2014): 26–35.
Osman, Ahmed A. “Freedom in Teaching and Learning.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 3, no. 2 (2013): 142–49.
Pazmiño, Robert W. Foundational Issues in Christian Education. Heritage. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008.
———. God Our Teacher: Theological Basics in Christian Education. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002.
Pecore, John, and Bertram Bruce. “Editorial for Progressive Education: Antecedents of Educating for Democracy.” International Journal of Progressive Education 9, no. 1 (2013): 10–13.
Plantinga, Alvin. Faith and Rationality: Reason and Belief in God. Notre Dame: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 2014.
Radu, Lucian. “John Dewey and Progressivism in American Education.” Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Bra?ov, Series VII: Social Sciences and Law 4, no. 2 (2011): 85–90.
Rescher, Nicholas. Epistemology: An Introduction to The Theory of Knowledge. Albany: SUNY Press, 2012.
Sikandar, Aliya. “John Dewey and His Philosophy of Education.” Journal of Education and Educational Development 2, no. 2 (2016): 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725309341597.
Snyder, Hannah. “Literature Review as a Research Methodology: An Overview and Guidelines.” Journal of Business Research 104, no. August (2019): 333–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039.
Sukono, Djoko. “Alkitab: Penyataan Allah Yang Diilhamkan.” PASCA?: Jurnal Teologi Dan Pendidikan Agama Kristen 15, no. 1 (2019): 28–34. https://doi.org/10.46494/psc.v15i1.66.
Sulistio, Thio Christian. “Epistemologi Reformed?: Sebuah Upaya Filsuf-Filsuf Kristen Membela Status Epistemologi Kepercayaan Kristen.” Veritas?: Jurnal Teologi Dan Pelayanan 13, no. 2 (2012): 217–29. https://doi.org/10.36421/veritas.v13i2.263.
Suryaningsih, Eko Wahyu. “Doktrin Tritunggal Kebenaran Alkitabiah.” PASCA?: Jurnal Teologi Dan Pendidikan Agama Kristen 15, no. 1 (2019): 16–22. https://doi.org/10.46494/psc.v15i1.64.
Tong, Stephen. Arsitek Jiwa 1: Guru Sekolah Minggu & Guru Agama Kristen. Surabaya: Lembaga Reformed Injili Indonesia, 2003.
Tung, Khoe Yoa. Filsafat Pendidikan Kristen: Meletakkan Fondasi Dan Filosofi Pendidikan Kristen Di Tengah Tantangan Filsafat Dunia. Yogyakarta: ANDI, 2013.
———. Menuju Sekolah Kristen Impian Masa Kini. Yogyakarta: ANDI, 2014.
Wasitohadi, Wasitohadi. “Pragmatisme, Humanisme Dan Implikasinya Bagi Dunia Pendidikan Di Indonesia.” Satya Widya 28, no. 2 (2012): 175–90. https://doi.org/10.24246/j.sw.2012.v28.i2.p175-190.
Williams, Morgan. “Dewey in the 21 St Century.” Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education 9, no. 1 (2017): 91–102.
Yang, Ferry. Pendidikan Kristen. Surabaya: Momentum, 2018.
Zaluchu, Sonny Eli. “Metode Penelitian Di Dalam Manuskrip Jurnal Ilmiah Keagamaan.” Jurnal Teologi Berita Hidup 3, no. 2 (March 25, 2021): 249–66. https://doi.org/10.38189/jtbh.v3i2.93.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Neng Priyanti, Nabylla Sardy